CAMBER 1 1 Camber is the deviation of a side edge from a straight edge. Measurement is taken by placing a straight edge on the concave side of a sheet and measuring the distance between the sheet edge and the straight edge in the center of the arc. Camber is caused by one side being elongated more than the other.
2 The hook or dogleg near the ends of a coil. ****
CAMBER TOLERANCES 1 Camber is the deviation from edge straightness. Maximum allowable tolerance of this deviation of a side edge from a straight line are defined in ASTM Standards. ****
CAPACITY Normal ability to produce metals in a given time period. This rating should include maintenance requirements, but because such service is scheduled to match the needs of the machinery (not those of the calendar), a mill might run at more than 100% of capacity one month and then fall well below rated capacity as maintenance is performed.
Engineered Capacity The theoretical volume of a mill or smelter, given its constraints of raw material supply and normal working speed.
“True” Capacity Volume at full utilization, allowing for the maintenance of equipment and reflecting current material constraints. (Bottlenecks of supply and distribution can change over time — capacity will expand or reduce.) ****
CARBON STEEL Steel that has properties made up mostly of the element carbon and which relies on the carbon content for structure. Most of the steel produced in the world is carbon steel. ****
CASING Casing is the structural retainer for the walls of oil and gas wells, and accounts for 75% (by weight) of OCTG shipments. Casing is used to prevent contamination of both the surrounding water table and the well itself. Casing lasts the life of a well and is not usually removed when a well is closed. ****
CASTING 4 The process of pouring molten metal into a mould so that the cooled, solid metal retains the shape of the mould. ****
CASTRIP Process to directly cast molten steel into a final shape and thickness without additional hot or cold rolling. This reduces capital investment, energy, and environmental cost. ****
CHARGE The act of loading material into a vessel. For example, iron ore, coke, and limestone are charged into a Blast Furnace; a Basic Oxygen Furnace is charged with scrap and hot metal. ****
CHEMISTRIES 1 The chemical composition of steel indicating the amount of carbon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorous and a host of other elements. ****
CHROMIUM (CR) An alloying element that is the essential stainless steel raw material for conferring corrosion resistance. A film that naturally forms on the surface of stainless steel self-repairs in the presence of oxygen if the steel is damaged mechanically or chemically, and thus prevents corrosion from occurring. ****
What? Method of applying a stainless steel coating to carbon steel or lower alloy steel (i.e., steel with alloying element content below 5%).
Why? To increase corrosion resistance at lower initial cost than exclusive use of stainless steel.
How? By 1) welding stainless steel onto carbon steel; 2) pouring melted stainless steel around a solid carbon steel slab in a mold; or 3) placing a slab of carbon steel between two plates of stainless steel and bonding them by rolling at high temperature on a plate mill. ****
COATING 1 The process of covering steel with another material (tin, chrome, and zinc), primarily for corrosion resistance. ****
COILS Metal sheet that has been wound. The metal, once rolled flat, is more than one-quarter mile long; coils are the most efficient way to store and transport sheet steel. ****
What? The basic fuel consumed in blast furnaces in the smelting of iron. Coke is a processed form of coal. About 1,000 pounds of coke are needed to process a ton of pig iron, an amount which represents more than 50% of an integrated steel mill’s total energy use.
Why? Metallurgical coal burns sporadically and reduces into a sticky mass. Processed coke, however, burns steadily inside and out, and is not crushed by the weight of the iron ore in the blast furnace.
How? Inside the narrow confines of the coke oven, coal is heated without oxygen for 18 hours to drive off gases and impurities. ****
COKE OVEN BATTERY A set of ovens that process coal into coke. Coke ovens are constructed in batteries of ten to 100 ovens that are 20 feet tall, 40 feet long, and less than two feet wide. Coke batteries, because of the exhaust fumes emitted when coke is pushed from the ovens, often are the dirtiest area of a steel mill complex. ****
What? Finishing mills roll cold coils of pickled hot-rolled sheet to make the steel thinner, smoother, and stronger by applying pressure, rather than heat.
How? Stands of rolls in a cold-reduction mill are set very close together and press a sheet of steel from one-quarter inch thick into less than an eighth of an inch, while more than doubling its length. ****
COLD-ROLLED STRIP (SHEET) Sheet steel that has been pickled and run through a cold-reduction mill. Strip has a final product width of approximately 12 inches, while sheet may be more than 80 inches wide. Cold- rolled sheet is considerably thinner and stronger than hot-rolled sheet, so it will sell for a premium (see Sheet Steel). ****
COLD WORKING (ROLLING)
What? Changes in the structure and shape of steel achieved through rolling, hammering, or stretching the steel at a low temperature (often room temperature).
Why? To create a permanent increase in the hardness and strength of the steel.
How? The application of forces to the steel causes changes in the composition that enhance certain properties. In order for these improvements to be sustained, the temperature must be below a certain range, because the structural changes are eliminated by higher temperatures. ****
CONSUMPTION Measures the physical use of a metal by end users. Metal consumption estimates, unlike steel demand figures, account for changes in inventories. ****
What? A method of pouring steel directly from the furnace into a billet, bloom, or slab directly from its molten form.
Why? Continuous casting avoids the need for large, expensive mills for rolling ingots into slabs. Continuous cast slabs also solidify in a few minutes versus several hours for an ingot. Because of this, the chemical composition and mechanical properties are more uniform.
How? Steel from the BOF or electric furnace is poured into a tundish (a shallow vessel that looks like a bathtub) atop the continuous caster. As steel carefully flows from the tundish down into the water-cooled copper mold of the caster, it solidifies into a ribbon of red-hot steel. At the bottom of the caster, torches cut the continuously flowing steel to form slabs or blooms. ****
CONTRACT SALES Metal products committed to customers through price agreements extending three to 12 months. About one-half of all flat-rolled steel is sold on this basis, primarily because the auto companies sign agreements to cover at least one year’s model. Price increases that the steel mills might announce during the year do not generally affect the revenues from the contract side of the business. ****
CONVERSION COST Resources spent to process material in a single stage, from one type to another. The costs of converting iron ore to hot metal or bauxite to aluminum can be isolated for analysis. ****
CONVERTER/PROCESSOR Processes steel into a more finished state, such as pipe, tubing, and cold-rolled strip, before selling it to end users. Such steel generally is not sold on contract, making the converter segment of the mills’ revenues more price sensitive than their supply contracts to the auto manufacturers. ****
What? COREX® is a coal-based smelting process that yields hot metal or pig iron. The output can be used by integrated mills or EAF mills.
How? The process gasifies non-coking coal in a smelting reactor, which also produces liquid iron. The gasified coal is fed into a shaft furnace, where it removes oxygen from iron ore lumps, pellets, or sinter; the reduced iron is then fed to the smelting reactor. ****
CORROSION The gradual degradation or alteration of metal caused by atmosphere, moisture, or other agents. ****
CULVERT PIPE Heavy gauge, galvanized steel that is spiral-formed or riveted into corrugated pipe, which is used for highway drainage applications. ****
CUT-TO-LENGTH Process to uncoil sections of flat-rolled steel and cut them into a desired length. Product that is cut to length is normally shipped flat-stacked. ****